History of wood


Wood is a natural material that has been used since ancient times to meet various needs due to its remarkable mechanical properties, easy availability and equally easy workability.

The first use of wood in architecture dates back to Ancient Greece, for temple roofs. Also used in Roman times to make lofts, its use diversified during the Middle Ages, when it was used for the structure of dwellings and to make wooden window frames as protection systems.

With the arrival of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, in addition to its use at the architectural level, window and door frame technology was developed. During this period, in fact, many Italian craftsmen make several advances in wooden window and door frames.

Since the workmanship was exclusively handcrafted, the choice of wood species was left solely to the carpenter’s experience. Long, parallel-fiber essences were selected, avoiding knots that, in the presence of moisture, could give rise to swelling. Crucial was the period of tree cutting, which had to take place between November and the vegetative awakening.

Once sectioned into boards, it was left to rest for drying and seasoning and finally processed.

Thanks to the material’s remarkable availability, elasticity and easy workability even in small sections, wood is perceived as an extremely suitable material for traditional window construction.

In 1906, German carpenter Otto Hetzer patented laminated wood, which spread first in Switzerland and then in the United States. In Italy, the first experimental tests were carried out around the 1930s, but actual production began in the 1960s.

The manufacturing process involves the reduction of logs into small lamellas, stripped of any defects before planing.

Gluing, overlapping, pressing, profiling, impregnation and/or painting then take place. The result is a product with greater dimensional stability and homogeneity than natural wood.

For finishing the profiles, there are various painting techniques, clear or colored, which further enhance the performance of the wood.

The profiles, subjected to different coating cycles, are thus made waterproof and moisture-resistant.

Depending on the geographical area and the use of the window frame, there is a wide range of wood types to choose from. Chestnut is valued for its good mechanical strength, easy workability and proven stability in wet environments. Oak is characterized by strong fibers and has a pleasant color, as well as walnut, which is used largely for front doors and doors.

For the construction of door and window frames, those woods that are considered less “valuable” are much more widley used: we are talking about pine, fir, locust and in some cases poplar, woods that are easy to find, inexpensive and easy to shape.

Pine, a soft, resinous wood, is usually used for interior fixtures. Spruce, more commonly known as Douglas fir, is a knotty wood used for interior fixtures because it is sensitive to weathering. Durmast is a wood that stands the test of time and is used for exterior fixtures, in the laminated version.

Today, wood is still among the most popular materials because it coordinates well with furniture and siding. While it is a material with a low thermal conductivity value, it is less resistant than other materials to weathering.